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THE RELIABILITY AND VALIDATION OF A 2D IMAGE ANALYSIS SYSTEM WHEN APPLIED TO THE MEASUREMENT OF TWIN STUDY MODEL SAMPLES
تاريخ النشر: 2015-12-31
عدنان حميده (Department of Dental Sciences, faculty of Medical Technology, Misurata-Libya)
Adnan66w@yahoo.com

نزيهة ارحومة (Faculty of medicine, University of Tripoli, Libya)
جلال زنتوتي (Tripoli Central Hospital.)
خالد سالم (Department of Otolarygology, Central Hospital of Misurata, Libya)
محمد الطويل (Department of dermatology, Central Hospital of Misurata.)
سالم السريتي (Department of Microbiology, Libyan Academy, Misurata, Libya)
رجاء أبورويص (Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of medical technology, Misurata)
جابر قليوان (Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Misurata)
طارق الرشاح (Department of Dermatology, Teaching Hospital of Zliten, Faculty of Medicine, University of AlMergeb, Libya)
طارق الهمالي (Department of Orthopedic, Central Hospital, Tripoli.)
موسى الرقيق (- Department of surgical oncology, Misurata Cancer Center,University of Misurata, Libya)
جمال بوردم (Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Aljabal Algharbi University, Gherian, Libya.)
فيصل محمد شاه (Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Misurata.)
فاتن بن رجب (Department of Pediatric endocrinology, Tripoli Children Hospital, Libya.)
بشير المدني (Department of obstetrics and gynecology, Misurata central hospital)
أحمد أبورويص (Department of Anaesthesia, Misurata Central hospital, Libya)
توفيق أبوزلوط (Department of Surgery, Faculty of medicine, University of Garyounis.)
عبدالله غيث (Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Hospital of Tripoli)
محمد سويسي (Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of medicine, University of Misurata, Libya)
رمضان أبوحجر (Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Al-Mergib, Alkhoms, Libya)
مسعود العزابي (Tripoli Central Hospital)
ياسين أبوشحمة (Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of medicine, University of Misurata, Libya)

Abstract... This study aimed to investigate dental fluctuating asymmetry of tooth dimensions in monozygotic (MZ) co-twins as
a measure of how dental development is affected by epigenetic and environmental factors. The mesiodistal (MD),
buccolingual (BL) dimensions of the central incisor, lateral incisor, second premolar and first molar in each of the
four quadrants, on 20 sets of study models of MZ twin pairs were determined manually and two dimensional (2D)
image analysis. The extent of asymmetry was assessed by determining intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCC’s)
between pairs of antimeric teeth between individuals, then the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) between twin pairs determined. Intra-operator repeatability for 2D measurement was substantial or excellent. Differences were detected
between left and right antimeres for all the four measurements, and these differences were not the same for both
twins in a pair. 2D image analysis facilitated the additional measurements of surface area and perimeter. Asymmetry
between twin pairs for each tooth type followed a pattern fitting with the morphogenetic field theory with the key
teeth showing the least asymmetry (upper centrals, upper sixes, lower laterals, lower sixes) and the variable teeth
showing the most asymmetry (upper laterals, upper fives and lower sixes). The MD dimension also followed this
trend.


Keywords : Twin studies, Genetic, 2D image analysis, Manual measurement, Dental development, Asymmetry

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV SPECTROPHOTOMETER METHOD FOR THE QUICK ESTIMATION OF OLIVE LEAF EXTRACT (OLE) IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION
تاريخ النشر: 2015-12-31

Abstract... Olive (Olea europaea), a rich source of natural antioxidant is native to the Mediterranean region. The main active
constituents of olive include oleic acid, phenolic constituents like hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein and squalene are
abundantly found in its leaf. Therefore, the aim of our research is to develop and validate simple, sensitive and specific spectrophotometric method for olive leaf extract (OLE). The developed method was validated with respect to
linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity. The adequate drug solubility and maximum sensitivity were found in
ethanol. The λmax or the absorption maxima of the drug was found to be 279 nm. The samples were prepared in ethanol and method obeyed Beers law in concentration ranges 5- 50 μg/ml. The content of OLE in herbal pharmaceutical formulation was determined. The results of analysis were validated statistically and confirmed the accuracy of
the proposed method. Hence the proposed method can be used for the reliable quantification of olive leaf extract in
herbal pharmaceutical formulation


Keywords : UV spectroscopy, Olive leaf extract, Validation.

LIPID SCREENING IN 100 PEDIATRIC PATIENTS WITH TYPE 1 DM IN TRIPOLI CHILDREN HOSPITAL (2008-2009)
تاريخ النشر: 2015-12-31

Abstract... DM is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by abnormalities in fuel metabolism including glucose, lipids and
amino acids. Lipid disorders are common in diabetes mellitus, diabetic dyslipidemia is characterized by hypertriglyceridemia, increased levels of (VLDL), small dense LDL lipoprotein, and decreased levels of high density lipoproteins (HDL). Dyslipidemia will increase risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus. The
study is designed to screen type1 diabetic patients for lipid abnormality and to know its relation to HbA1c, BMI and
duration of DM. Case series study was done on 364 diabetic patients with type 1 DM of both sexes and aged between 1.5-18 yrs with different duration of DM, who attended endocrine clinic at Tripoli children hospital 2008-
2009. Those patients were investigated for fasting TC, TG, LDL, HDL, and HbA1C, only 100 patients. (Convenient
sample) was included in the study according to complete investigations results which were done at national accredited laboratory, data were analyzed according to weight, height, BMI, HbA1c and duration of diabetes mellitus. Lipid
profiles of our patients showed abnormality in TC, TG, LDL, and HDL with significant positive correlation between
triglycerides level and HbA1c level. The age of the patients ranged between 1.5 to 18 years, with mean age 10.7±4.2
years. Female: Male ratio 1.4: 1, By using nonparametric chi-square; the difference between observed and expected
count was insignificant (p=0.072). The duration of DM among our patients ranged between 1 month and 9.5 years,
with mean 2.8±2.5 yrs.; the majority of our patients (92%) had normal weight. 3 % of them were overweight (z
score >+2SD units). Only 1% were under weight. HbA1c was between 4.5% and 18.6 %, with mean HbA1c 9.3±
2.6%, so about 52% of the patients had accepted HbA1c and 45% had non accepted HbA1c. Total cholesterol,
LDL, TG, and HDL were the parameters determined in this study; the mean value of each of them is within normal
range. We found that 5% of the patients have high cholesterol level, and about 9% have high LDL cholesterol
and 13% have low HDL cholesterol, 6% had high TG level. So the commonest lipid abnormality is low HDL
cholesterol by using T student test for independent samples: HbA1c was significantly greater in patients with high
triglyceride levels (mean HbA1c 11.9%) than in those with normal TG level (mean HbA1c 9.2%) P value = 0.024.
There is an abnormality in lipid profile among patients with type1DM especially who have poor diabetic control.
Further longitudinal study with large sized sample is needed to get more informative results.


Keywords : Lipid profile, DMT, Libyan children, HbA1c, Dyslipidemia

COMPARISON BETWEEN USING LIDOCAINE IN DIFFERENT VOLUMES AND CONCENTRATIONS FOR INTRAVENOUS REGIONAL ANAESTHESIA
تاريخ النشر: 2015-12-31

Abstract... Biers block is used to provide regional anaesthesia for more than one hundred years ago worldwide with high degree
of safety .This study designed to compare the efficacy of Xylocaine when used in different volumes and concentrations. Prospective randomized study, single blinded, done after taking patient consent and approval from hospital
ethical committee done on 28 patients, 30-40 years old, 17 female and 11 male undergoing elective soft tissue surgery on the upper limb as trigger finger, cut tendon, carpel tunnel syndrome and ganglion. 40 ml of (0.5 %) lidocaine given to group A and 20 ml of (1%) lidocaine given two group B. Lidocaine used is preservative free. All
injected done by usng 20 ml syringe size and given through 22 gauge cannula in the dorsum of the hand and the
injection done over 90 seconds after inflating the proximal tourniquet. The patients classified randomly into two
groups Group A receive 40 ml of (0.5%) lidocaine to do biers block and in Group B 20 ml of 1% lidocaine. Intraoperative and postoperative, assessment of the pain, and patient satisfaction in group A and B determine it is
nearly similar, VAS (P<0.05). by using the T test. 40 ml of lidocaine (0.5%) is equal in efficacy to 20 ml lidocaine
at (1%) in performing the intravenous regional anaesthesia of upper limb.


Keywords : Visual analogue scale (VAS), Lidocaine, Intravenous regional anaesthesia ( IVRA or Biers block )

INGUINAL HERNIA REPAIR UNDER LOCAL ANAESTHESIA
تاريخ النشر: 2015-12-31

Abstract... Tension-free Lichtenstein procedure was performed under local anaesthesia in 113 patients. During 2006-2009 in 7th
October Hospital and Aljala Hospital, Benghazi, Libya. After a mean follow-up of one year, the operative outcome
(operation time, pain, bleeding, infections) and long-term results (recurrences, chronic pain) were recorded. The rate
of wound infection (1.7%) and seromas (4.4%). One recurrences (0.9%) were found at follow-up. Although 10% of
the patients reported some groin pain afterwards, over 90% were very satisfied with the operation. Open mesh repair
under local anaesthesia is a cost-effective, simple and safe operation


Keywords : Inguinal hernia, Local anesthesia.

BURNS INJURY IN UNDER 5 YEARS CHILDREN ADMITTED TO BURN AND PLASTIC SURGERY HOSPITAL FROM 2009 TO 2011
تاريخ النشر: 2015-12-31

Abstract... Burns are a common cause of preventable injury and most of these injuries are in children under the age of 5 years
and have the greatest length of stay for all hospital admission due to injuries. As the Children are not little adults, the
symptoms, signs, and management will be completely different. The study was conducted to identify the epidemiological features of burns in children and analysis of the outcome of used management. Retrospective analysis of data
of patients files under 5 years old who were admitted to pediatric burn and intensive care unit burn units in Burn and
Plastic surgery hospital- Tripoli, in the period between (January 2009 to December 2011). 21% of the total admission were children under 5 years, 85% of those patients were mild to moderate injury and 15% were with severe
injury. Male patients represent 61% of the admissions and female patients represent 39% of the admissions. Scald
burn represent 69% of cases, fire burn with 14% and the rest because of electrical burn, therefore more cases in winter season. 50% of cases managed surgically with mean duration of stay in hospital 8 days. The study shows 60% of
the patients were males, Scald burn injuries are most common, early surgical excision and grafting decline the duration of stay in hospital.


Keywords : Burns, Duration of stay, Early surgical intervention.

EXAMINATION UNDER ANAESTHESIA IN OPHTHALMIC PRACTICE
تاريخ النشر: 2015-12-31

Abstract... Ocular examination is a sophisticated procedure. The patient has to be exceptionally cooperative and relaxed. If
those are not achieved, not only the examination is not reliable but it may be dangerous also. This study is aimed to
determine the ophthalmic indications and the final diagnosis in children were examined under general anaesthesia
(EUA) in Albasar Ophthalmic clinic, Masuria- Libya over a period of six years (2008-2013). All examined children
underwent cycloplegic refraction and dilated fundoscopy. Other recordings like corneal diameter, axial length and
intra ocular pressure measurements were done when needed. 265 cases were included. The commonest ophthalmic
indication for EUA among children was strabismus in 235 cases (89%). In 30 cases (11%) the indications for EUA
were nystagmus, corneal haziness, white pupil, trauma, fundus examination and ptosis. Ocular pathology was found
in two cases only (less than 1%) in strabismus group, while it was found in 19 cases (63.3%) in the other group. A
complete precise ocular examination is mandatory procedure in all ophthalmic patients who are unable to tolerate a
complete examination within the ophthalmic clinic setting. The higher the rate of performing this relatively safe and
effective technique is an indicative of improvement of ophthalmic survives


Keywords : General anaesthesia, Refraction, fundoscopy, Axial length, Nystagmus.

THE TOP TEN CAUSES OF DEATH AMONG GHERIAN POPULATION (2005)
تاريخ النشر: 2015-12-31

Abstract... Data on mortality by age, sex, and cause are primary inputs for assessing population health status, and a good evidence for the effectiveness of health policy in combination with other epidemiology and socioeconomic indicators.
The aim of this study is to illustrate the top ten causes of deaths in one region of Libya, in order to known the size of
problems in our community and to enlighten the policy maker about the serious public health problems which can to
put strategy to reduce the magnitude of preventive death. This study was conducted at Gherian teaching hospital
(2005), it is a retrospective descriptive study. The data were collected from statistic health department from death
certificates. The sample size was 220 death certificates. The total admissions in the hospital were 9978 patients in
2005. The causes are as the following: cardiac diseases, cerebral stroke, road traffic accidents, cancer, chest infection, renal failure, head trauma, birth asphyxia, liver cirrhosis and bronchial asthma. The unknown disease represents 8.6% and other disease are (14.1%). In comparison the results of this study with others study in the world, we
observed differences in the rank of causes of death due to genetic, life style, environment, health situation, socioeconomic status…etc.


Keywords : Top causes of death, cardiac disease, Death certificate, Unknown causes, Limitation in diagnostic

THE USE OF MISOPROSTOL AS ALTERNATIVE TO CURETTAGE POST ABORTION
تاريخ النشر: 2015-12-31

Abstract... Termination of pregnancy is performed nowadays medically rather than surgically in most cases by means of misoprostol, in order to minimize the hospitalization and its costs. This study is aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of
misoprostol used buccally in cases of incomplete abortion to avoid uterine curettage. The study was conducted in the
department of Obstetrics & Gynecology in Misurata central hospital, Misurata, Libya. The study performed during
the period from January 1st 2013 to June 30th 2014. 300 patient were involved in the study. Patients were aborted
either spontaneously or induced by misoprostol, all of them were hemodynamically stable with sonography proved
diagnosis of incomplete abortion. They were given misoprostol 400 mcg buccally two times a day for a period of
five days under cover of antibiotics. Pelvic sonography was performed on day 5, day 10 and day 15 to confirm the
complete expulsion of the retained tissue. Complete evacuation rates with medical treatment using misoprostol were
84.3%. 80% of cases of age group within 20 - 40 years and nearly 70% had history of abortion, nearly 48.2 % of the
aborted group (84.3%) were less than 8 weeks gestation which indicates that the efficacy is more in early gestational
ages. The spasmodic pain is the most obvious side effect to misoprostol which is relieved by ibuprofen tablets
400mg used whenever needed while the duration and amount of bleeding were reduced and in more than 50% of
cases stopped by the fifth day. Medical treatment using misoprostol 800 mcg daily for incomplete abortion is effective and acceptable in hemodynamically stable patients.


Keywords : Misoprostol, Medical termination of pregnancy, Retained products of conception

CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COLON CANCER IN LIBYA
تاريخ النشر: 2015-12-31

Abstract... The study describes demographic and clincopathological features of colorectal cancer in the middle region of Libya. The study was conducted on 229 patients with colon cancer, admitted to the Misurata Cancer Centre, during the
years 2010-2014. The clincopathological features were collected from pathology reports and hospital files of the
patients. The mean age of colon cancer patients in Libya was 56.06 years, which in men is much higher than in
women (p=0.02). The histological types of the colon cancer in Libyan populations showed that the adenocarcinoma
was the predominant type followed by mucinous carcinoma. Among Libyan patients the systemic and LN involvement, higher stage tumors, and more tumor extension were strongly associated with poor survival. Although, the
men patients had shorter life span than women did, this survival difference was not statistically significant. The histological types and other histopathological risk features show similar importance in respect to survival as the data
from European colon cancer. In Libya, the colon cancer is slightly more common in female than in male. Libyan
mucinous colon cancer is dominantly seen in younger adult and displays unfavorable features such as high histological grade and stage, large size, and frequent systemic involvement.


Keywords : Colorectal cancer, Libya, North Africa, Europe, Demography, Duke`s, Histopathology, Survival, clinicopathological features

RESULTS OF RENAL BIOPSY IN CHILDREN WITH NEPHROTIC SYNDROME AT TRIPOLI CHILDREN HOSPITAL
تاريخ النشر: 2015-12-31

Abstract... Nephrotic syndrome is an important renal disorder in children. The role of renal biopsy in children with nephrotic
syndrome is controversial, especially in children with frequent relapses or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome.
The aims of this study are to verify indications of renal biopsy in children with nephrotic syndrome, to identify patterns of glomerular disease and its corresponding outcomes. This is a descriptive study reviewed retrospectively a 25
renal biopsies from children with nephrotic syndrome who followed up in nephrology unit at Tripoli Children Hospital from Jun. 1995 to Jan. 2006. Children with either steroid resistant or steroid dependent who underwent renal
biopsy were included. Twenty five of children (14 male and 11 female) with nephrotic syndrome were included. The
mean age 5.2±4.6years (range was from 1-14 years). 14(56%) children were steroid resistant and 11(44%) children
were steroid dependent. Minimal-change disease (MCD) accounted for 12(48%) children, focal and segmental sclerosis (FSGS) was accounted for 10(40%) children and 3(12%) children accounted for other histopathological types.
7(87.5%) of children with FSGS had progressed to end stage renal disease. Steroid resistant was the main indication
for renal biopsy in children with nephrotic syndrome. There was increased frequency of FSGS nephrotic syndrome
among children with steroid resistant type with poor outcomes


Keywords : Nephrotic syndrome, Renal biopsy, Minimal change disease, Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

THE DIAGNOSTIC YIELD OF CORE NEEDLE US-GUIDED TRANSTHORACIC LUNG BIOPSY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PERIPHERAL LUNG LESIONS COMPARED TO FLEXIBLE BRONCHOSCOPY A SINGLE CENTER STUDY FROM TRIPOLI-LIBYA
تاريخ النشر: 2015-12-31

Abstract... Safe and effective diagnostic modalities are needed for the assessment of peripheral lung lesions. Ultrasound (US)
guidance for trans thoracic lung biopsy (TTLB) is safer, quicker, and less expensive than guidance by CT or fluoroscopy, and unlike flexible bronchoscopy (FB); TTLB allows the operator to biopsy the lesions without relying on
central airway anatomy to reach the target. This is a descriptive prospective study to evaluate the diagnostic yield of
core needle US-guided TTLB in the diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions compared to FB.
Patients with peripheral lung lesions referred to the respiratory clinic at Tripoli Central Hospital during the period
from July 2005 to December 2014 were evaluated. They were subjected to history taking, clinical and radiological
examination. Flexible bronchoscopic (FB) examination was performed with or without transbronchial biopsy (TBB).
When the FB was negative or the biopsy was inconclusive or needed to be confirmed, core needle US-guided transthoracic lung biopsy (TTLB) was performed. 8 patients were considered clinically fit for FB and directly underwent
TTLB. None of these patients had INR >1.5, platelets < 100,000/ml, forced expiratory volume (FEV1) <35% of
predicted, pulmonary hypertension, severe respiratory failure, sever, emphysema, or previous pneumectomy. Samples taken from suspicious sites were sent for histopathological examination.
The 91 consecutive patients were involved in the study, 76 (83.5%) were males and (15%) were females, their mean
age was 63.8 ±17.9 (SD) (range 16-91 years). In 83 patients FB was performed, out of them 65 had transbronchial
biopsy (TBB). TBB histopathology results gave a clear diagnosis in 28/83 patients (33.7%). The 91 patients underwent TTLB and a tissue diagnosis was obtained in 81 (89%) patients. 64/91 patients (69.2%) had malignant lesions
and 17 patients (18.7%) had benign ones. In the remaining 10 (1.1%) patients the result was inadequate or inconclusive. The diagnostic yield of TTLB in the 38 patients who had normal FB findings was 92.1%; 22/38 had malignant
and 13/38 had benign lesions. Malignant lung lesions were significantly associated with older age. Squamous cell
lung cancer was detected in 17/91 patients (18.7%), adenocarcinoma in 15/91(16.5%) and small cell carcinoma
14/91 (15.4%) patients. No serious complication was reported except for a pneumothorax that necessitated chest
tube insertion in one patient (1.2%). The diagnostic yield of TBB in this study was low (33.7%). The yield of USguided TTLB was high (89%) and was higher (92.1%) in the patients with negative FB findings. Overall 69.2% of
the studied patients had malignant lung lesions that were significantly associated with older age, and squamous cell
cancer was the most frequent diagnosis


Keywords : Peripheral lung lesions, Ultrasound-guided transthoracic lung biopsy, Core needle biopsy.

THE INCIDENCE OF POST TONSILLECTOMY BLEEDING IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS
تاريخ النشر: 2015-12-31

Abstract... This retrospective study was conducted in Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) department at Misurata Central Hospital,
during the period from January 2006 to December 2007. The aim is to evaluate the incidence of post tonsillectomy
haemorrhage in relation to the age, gender and post operative period. The files of 253 patients were reviewed. 153
patients were younger than 15 years and 100 patients aged 15 years and older. All patients underwent tonsillectomy
with or with out adenoidectomy. Six patients (2.4%) experienced bleeding within 8 days postoperatively, 4 (1.6%)
out them developed the bleeding in the first 24 hours. The bleeding was more in the adult group than the paediatric
group (4% vs 1.5%). Compared with other studies, the result was almost the same.


Keywords : It is worth noting that awareness of this factor should help in improving the outcome.

MALIGNANT SKIN TUMOURS IN MISURATA CANCER CENTRE DURING 2011 - 2014
تاريخ النشر: 2015-12-31

Abstract... Skin cancer is a common malignancy worldwide. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer
affecting white individuals and Caucasian populations. Melanoma represents 4% of all new cancers whereas incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is nearly equal to that of all non-cutaneous cancers in United States of
America. The development of NMSC, including both squamous and basal cell carcinomas is related to ultraviolet
light (UV). Alternatively, etiology of melanoma is either due to genetic defects (familial melanoma) or interactions
of low-penetrance genes and UV (sporadic melanoma). Malignant tumor able to invade the surrounding tissues
and/or metastasize to other parts of the body. Light skin, hair and eye colors , family and personal history of skin
cancer, certain types and a large number of moles and people with history of sunburn early in life (as in case of malignant melanoma) are at high risk of skin cancer. This study is aimed to identify epidemiological features of skin
cancer in Misurata Cancer Center during 2011- 2014. Total number of cases were 195, out of them 44 (22.5%) cases with malignant skin tumour , basal cell carcinoma 17 (38.6%) cases , squamous cell carcinoma 20 (45.5%) cases ,
malignant melanoma 3 (6.8%) cases, dermatofibrosarcoma 4 (9%) cases and one (2.3%) case with metastatic skin
cancer from a primary in the breast. Early diagnosis and accurate and up-to-date records on skin tumors are necessary for quantification of changes in its incidence to allow for research and planning of services


Keywords : Malignant skin tumour, Patient age and gender, Site of tumour.

POSITIVE FECAL OCCULT BLOOD TEST IN CORRELATION WITH INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS
تاريخ النشر: 2015-12-31

Abstract... 700 Stool samples were examined for intestinal parasitic infection and for fecal occult blood among those attending
the outpatient department of Ibn-Sina hospital in Sirte-Libya. This work aims to determine the intestinal parasitic
infections associated with positive fecal occult blood. Our results showed that 532 samples (76%) were detected
positive for parasitic infections (P< 0.0001), Entamoeba histolytica was the commonest parasitic infection detected
(36.3%). The positive FOB test was observed in 166 samples (23.7%) of the total examined samples, 140 samples
(84.3%) of the positive FOB test samples were correlated with the intestinal parasitic infection (P<0.0001), 120
samples of them (72.3%) were correlated with Entamoeba histolytica infections (P<0.0001). The present study
demonstrated that positive FOB test during routine analysis was correlated with the intestinal parasitic infections,
especially with E. histolytica rather than any other causes.


Keywords : Parasitic infection, Occult blood, Stool samples

BISPECIFIC ANTIBODIES: PRODUCTION AND USE
تاريخ النشر: 2015-12-31

Abstract... Bispecific antibodies are specific type of monoclonal antibodies, which can bind to two different types
of antigens. These monoclonal antibodies do not
occur naturally but can be produced by genetic engineering or by cell fusion. However, one exceptional
case of natural bispecific antibody was recently obtained from allergic patients receiving therapeutic
injections with 2 different allergens during specific
immunotherapy(1). The main advantage of these
types of antibodies is that they can recognize more
than one protein on the surface of different cells.
Bispecific antibodies are mostly designed to recruit
cytotoxic effector cells (cytotoxic T-lymphocytes or
NK cells) of the immune system effectively against
pathogenic target cells thus improving effector cell
cytotoxicity(2)
. Bispecific T-cell engagers (BiTEs) is
one of the typical example of bispecific monoclonal
antibody which direct a host`s T cells cytotoxic activity against diseased cells like cancer cell


THE ROLE OF INFLAMMATORY MEDIATORS IN ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE AND THE POTENTIAL FOR TARGETING THE IMMUNE SYSTEM FOR DISEASE TREATMENT
تاريخ النشر: 2015-12-31

Abstract... Alzheimer’s disease is the most common age related
neurodegenerative disorder the main clinical feature
is gradual loss of memory(1)
. Synaptic degradation,
loss of neurons, neurofibrillary tangles and senile
plagues are the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease. Senile plagues are formed of amyloid-β neurotoxic protein (Aβ), which derived from
amyloid precursor protein (APP), Accumulation and
deposition of amyloid-β protein in the brain is seen
as the primary factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease(2). Amyloid-β protein deposits extracellular in senile plaques while paired helical filaments (PHFs) and hyper-phosphorylated tau protein
accumulate abnormally in neurofibrillary tangles,
neuropil threads and dystrophic neuritis(1,3). Also
formations of neurofibrillary tangles by hyperphosphorylated tau constitute the primary neuropathological features of Alzheimer disease(4). 1
Amyloid β is a normal soluble metabolite protein of
around 4-kDa produced by processing a large transmembrane glycoprotein, APP, by β- and γsecretase(5). Platelets are also considered as main
source of amyloid-β in the circulatory system(6). The
main component of Aβ plaques is continuously producing in brains of normal people and patients with
AD. Normally, Aβ-associated proteins have been
involved in the Aβ amyloidogenic process regulation.
However, in Alzheimer`s disease brains there seem
to be an imbalance between those Aβ-associated
proteins that stimulate fibril formation and deposition and those Aβ-associated proteins that prevent
it(7).
Aβ plaques are formed from the accumulation and
precipitation of secreted Aβ in extracellular space.
This perspective suggests that Aβ deposition is a
result of production higher than clearance mechanisms by a small amount, and the excess becomes
converted to a more stable form that deposits and
builds up in a time-dependent manner(8). This review
will discuss the role of inflammatory components in
Alzheimer’s disease with reference to microglia,
astrocytes, complement proteins, and cytokines.
Then, it will illustrate the possibilities of targeting
the immune system for the disease treatment.


ACUTE INFANTILE HAEMORRHAGIC EDEMA
تاريخ النشر: 2015-12-31

Abstract... AIHE is a rare disorder, it´s manifestations are almost exclusively cutaneous. There is often a history
of recent upper respiratory and /or treatment with
Antibiotics. Clinical features include ecchymoses of
the head and extremities. Aetiology of AIHE include
infections, drugs and vaccination. Infections are
usually respiratory or urinary, e.g Streptococcal,
Staphylococal, Esherichia coli, Cytomegalovirus,
Adenovirus, Coxsakievirus, or rota virus infections(1).
AIHE may be triggered by infectious agents, although no definitive associations have been made(2).
AIHE represents a hypersensitivity or leukocytoclastic vasculitis, characterized by inflammation of the
small dermal vessels with fibrinoid necrosis and
extravasation of red blood cells. Although the
presentation of AIHE is terrifying for parents, It is
self-limiting disease(3).


SUBTALAR JOINT DISLOCATION
تاريخ النشر: 2015-12-31

Abstract... Subtalar dislocations are `rare` injuries. Although many of these dislocations result from a high-energy injury such as
a fall from a height or road traffic accident, a significant number occurs as a result of athletic injuries. Both these
cases had medial subtalar dislocations, one of them associated with fracture of the posterior process of the talus.
Although this injury pattern is uncommon, but it may be misdiagnosed as "ankle sprains" because of poor visualization on routine ankle radiographs, it is important to recognize the associated fracture as it involves the weight bearing articular surfaces.


MULTIPLE PRIMARY CEREBRAL HYDATID DISEASE IN ADULT; CT AND MRI DIAGNOSIS; CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE
تاريخ النشر: 2015-12-31

Abstract... The article was a presented case report of multiple primary cerebral hydatid cyst in adult man with review of relevant literature. Role of computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of
the disease. Case presentation: 50 years old man presented with symptoms of raised intracranial tension. CT scan
and MRI showed non-enhanced cerebral cystic lesions, with mild mass effect. Spiral CT scanner and MRI imager
1.5 T were the modalities of choice for diagnosis. Multiple primary cerebral hydatid cysts are very rare. CT scan and
MRI were central to diagnose the disease, and revealed typical features of hydatid cysts. Complete cystic remove
after craniotomy. The presented case is an adult man and with multiple primary cerebral hydatid cysts located in
right temporoparietal lobe, which was rare case in the population. CT and MRI are accurate modalities and they are
the easiest method for diagnosis of the disease. Multiple primary intracranial hydatid cysts in adult were rare and
should be considered in epidemic area.


Keywords : Intracerebral hydatid cyst, Primary, multiple, Adult, CT Scanner, MRI imager